Ranks in Judo

Mudansha (under black belt)

6th kyu- rokkyu white belt
5th kyu-gokkyu yellow belt
4th kyu-yonkyu orange belt
3rd kyu-sankyu green belt
2nd kyu-nikyu blue belt
1st kyu-ikkyu brown belt

Yudansha (black belts)

1st dan – shodan black belt
2nd dan – nidan black belt
3rd dan-sandan black belt
4th dan-yondan black belt
5th dan-godan black belt
6th dan-rokudan black or red and white belt
7th dan-shichidan black or red and white belt
8th dan-hachidan black or red and white belt
9th dan-kudan black or red belt
10th dan-judan black or red belt


Additional Information

Forms of Judo

Nage no kata
(formal techniques of throwing)

Katame No Kata
(formal techniques of grappling)

Judo Tournaments

Yellow Belt – 5th Grade – Gokyu

Tachi Waza: (Standing Techniques)
O goshi major hip throw
De ashi barai advanced foot sweep
O soto gari major outer reaping
Ippon Seoi nage one arm shoulder throw
O uchi gari major inner reaping
Osae-komi-waza: (Pinning Techniques)
Hon Kesa gatame normal scarf hold
Kami shiho gatame upper four quarters hold
Yoko shiho gatame side 4 quarters hold
Mune gatame chest hold
Ukemi: (Breakfalls)
Koho ukemi backwards
Yoko ukemi sideways
Zempo kaiten ukemi front roll
Judo gentle way
Sensei teacher
Matte wait (stop)
Hajime begin
Tori one who throws
Tatami judo mat
Osaekomi holding
Rei bow
Hidari left
Migi right
Ukemi breakfall
Uke one who is thrown
Dojo school, club or hall
Tachi waza standing throwing techniques
Ne waza ground techniques
Judoka judo player
1882 year judo was invented
Jigaro Kano invented judo
Count to 10 in Japanese
Ichi (eeche) One
Ni (nee) Two
San (sun) Three
Shi (shee) Four
Go (go) Five
Roku (roke) Six
Schichi (sheeche) Seven
Hachi (hatche) Eight
Ku (koo) Nine
Ju (joo) Ten
Hyaku (hee a koo) Hundred
Sen (sen) Thousand
Man (man) Ten Thousand

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Orange Belt – 4th grade – Yonkyu

Tachi Waza:
All previous tachi waza
Tai otoshi body drop
Ko soto gari minor outer reaping
Sasae tsurikomi ashi propping drawing ankle throw
Harai goshi sweeping hip or loin
Ko uchi gari minor inner reaping
Morote seoi nage two arm shoulder throw
All previous Osae-komi-waza
Makura kesa gatame pillow scarf hold
Kuzure kesa gatame broken scarf hold
Kata gatame shoulder hold
All previous terminology
Judogi judo uniform
Arigato thank you
Sono mama freeze
Yoshi continue (after sono mama)
O major
Ko minor
Te hand
Koshi hip or loin
Kubi neck
Ashi leg or foot
Kuzushi breaking your opponent’s balance
Obi belt
Randori free practice
Toketa broken (after osaekomi)
Kiai power shout

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Green Belt – 3rd Grade – Sankyu

Tachi Waza:
All previous tachi waza
O tsuri goshi major lifting hip throw
Ko tsuri goshi minor lifting hip throw
Koshi guruma hip wheel
Hane goshi spring hip throw
Uki goshi floating hip throw
Tani otoshi valley drop
Sukui nage scooping throw
Harai tsurikomi ashi sweeping drawing ankle throw
Hiza guruma knee wheel
Okuri ashi barai pursuing foot sweep
Ashi guruma leg wheel
All previous Osae-komi-waza
Ushiro kesa gatame reverse scarf hold
Tate shiho gatame longitudinal 4 quarters hold
Shime Waza:
(for 13 years of age and up)
Nami juji jime normal cross choke
Gyaku juji jime reverse cross choke
Kata juji jime half cross choke
All previous terminology
Ashi kubi ankle
Te kubi wrist
Hiza knee
Do stomach
Mata thigh
Tai body
Jigotai defensive posture
Shizentai natural posture
Maitta I submit
Eri collar
Uchikomi (fitting practice) practice without throwing
Waza technique
Zarei kneeling bow
Ritsurei standing bow
Soremade that is all
Kiotsuke attention

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Blue Belt – 2nd Grade – Nikyu

Tachi Waza:
All previous tachi waza
Uchi mata inner thigh
Yoko otoshi side drop
Tomoe nage circle or stomach throw
Utsuri goshi switching hip throw
Uki otoshi floating drop
O soto guruma major outer wheel
Kata guruma shoulder wheel
Tsurikomi goshi lift pull hip throw
All previous Osae-komi-waza
Shime Waza:
Hadaka jime naked choke
Okuri eri jime sliding collar choke
Kata ha jime single wing choke
Sankaku juji jime triangle choke
Kansetsu Waza:
Ude garami entangled arm lock
Ude hishigi juji gatame cross arm lock
Nage no kata: (forms of throwing)
Set 1 uki otoshi, seoi nage, kata guruma
Two counter and two
combination techniques must be demonstrated.
All previous terminology
Kata prearranged forms
Mudansha non black belt holder
Kyu grade (in mudansha)
Yudansha black belt holder
Dan degree (in yudansha)
Tachi waza standing (throwing) techniques
Te waza hand technique
Ashi waza foot technique
Koshi waza hip technique
Sutemi waza sacrifice technique
Ne waza grappling (groundwork) techniques
Osae waza holding technique
Shime waza choking technique
Kansetsu waza armlock technique

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Brown Belt – 1st Grade – Ikkyu

Tachi Waza:
All previous tachi waza
Ko soto gake minor outer hooking throw
Sumi gaeshi corner throw
Hane makikomi outer winding spring hip
O guruma major wheel
Soto makikomi outer winding throw
Uki waza floating throw
Yoko wakare side separation
Yoko guruma side wheel
Ushiro goshi rear hip or loin throw
Ura nage rear throw
Sumi otoshi corner drop
Yoko gake side hooking
All previous Osae-komi-waza
Shime Waza:
All previous chokes
Kansetsu Waza:
All previous arm locks
Ude hishigi ude gatame arm armlock
Ude hishigi hiza gatame knee armlock
The first 3 sets of Nage No Kata
must be demonstrated:
Set 1 uki otoshi, seoi nage, kata guruma
Set 2 uki goshi, harai goshi, tsurikomi
Set 3 okuri ashi harai, sasai tsurikuri
komi ashi, uchi mata
At least five counter and five
combination techniques must be demonstrated.
All previous terminology
Kake applying the throw
Tsukuri preparing the throw
Tai sabaki proper standing body movement
Nage no kata forms of throwing
Katame no kata forms of grappling
The student must be able to show
knowledge of the history of Kodokan Judo as well as
an understanding of the principles of Judo, such as:
Seiryoku-zen-yo maximum efficiency
Jita-kyoei mutual welfare and benefit
Judo the gentle way
Minimum age for this rank is 14
years old

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Black Belt Requirements

Black belts are awarded by the National Grading Board of Judo Canada on the recommendation of the Provincial Grading Board. The test is administered by the Provincial Grading Board and consists of the following:

  • a comprehensive written exam
  • demonstration of the techniques of the Kodokan Gokyu
  • demonstration of counter and combination techniques
  • demonstration of ground techniques including:
    • hold-downs
    • chokes
    • arm locks
  • demonstration of kata

Further information on the black belt requirements can be obtained in the Grading Syllabus issued by Judo Canada.
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Forms of Judo (Kata)

Nage no kata forms of throwing
Katame no kata forms of grappling
Kime no kata forms of decision
Goshin jitsu forms of self-defense
Ju no kata forms of gentleness
Koshiki no kata forms of antique
Itsutsu no kata forms of five
Taiiki no kata forms of natural physical education,
based on the principle of
maximum efficiency

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Nage No Kata (formal techniques of throwing)

Te waza hand techniques
uki otoshi floating drop
seoi nage shoulder throw
kata guruma shoulder wheel
Koshi waza hip techniques
uki goshi floating hip throw
harai goshi sweeping hip throw
tsurikomi goshi lifting pulling hip throw
Ashi waza foot and leg techniques
okuri ashi barai pursuing foot sweep
sasae tsurikomi ashi propping drawing ankle throw
uchi mata inner thigh throw
Ma sutemi waza rear sacrifice techniques
tomoe nage stomach or circle throw
ura nage rear throw
sumi gaeshi corner throw
Yoko sutemi waza side sacrifice techniques
yoko gake side hooking
yoko guruma side wheel
uki waza floating throw

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Katame No Kata (formal techniques of grappling)

Osae waza holding techniques
kesa gatame scarf hold
kata gatame shoulder hold
kami shiho gatame upper four quarters hold
yoko shiho gatame side four quarters hold
kuzure kami shiho gatame kuzure kami shiho gatame
Shime waza choke techniques
kata juji jime single cross choke
hadaka jime naked choke
okuri eri jime sliding collar choke
kata ha jime single wing choke
gyaku juji jime reverse cross choke
Kansetsu waza joint locking techniques
ude garami entangled arm lock
ude hishigi juji gatame cross arm lock
ude hishigi ude gatame arm arm lock
ude hishigi hiza gatame knee arm lock
ashi guruma entangled leg lock

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Judo Tournaments

Competition Area
The competition area is divided into two zones (contest zone and safety zone). The separation between these two zones is indicated by a red area called the danger zone. A strip of blue and white tape indicate the starting positions at which the contestants must start and end the contest.

Judo Match Begins
Prior to a match one judoka is assigned a blue sash to wear in addition to their belt or they will be asked to wear a blue Judogi. After the contestants have bowed and stepped forward, the referee announces hajime (begin) to start the match.


  • Ippon (full point)
  • Waza-ari (almost ippon, half point)
  • Yuko (almost waza-ari)
  • Koka (almost yuko)

An ippon can be scored by one of the following methods:

  • when a contestant with control throws the other contestant largely on his back with considerable force and speed;
  • when a contestant holds with osaekomi waza for 25 seconds;
  • when a contestant gives up by tapping twice with his hand or foot or says maitta, generally as a result of a holddown, choke or armlock;
  • one contestant is disqualified for violating the rules (hansoku-make);
  • or earning two waza-ari.
Waza-ari is scored when a contestant throws the other contestant with control, but the technique is partially lacking one of the three elements necessary for ippon.


Yuko is scored when a contestant with control throws the other contestant, but the technique is partially lacking two of the other three elements necessary for ippon.


Koka is scored when a contestant with control throws the other contestant onto one shoulder, his thigh(s), or buttocks with speed and force.


Osaekomi – The referee shall announce osaekomi when the contestant being held is controlled by his opponent. The scoring works as follows:

  • 10 – 14.9 seconds – Koka
  • 15 – 19.9 seconds – Yuko
  • 20 – 24.9 seconds – Waza-ari
  • 25 seconds – Ippon


  • Hansoku-make = grave infringement (very serious violation, disqualification)
  • Shido = slight infringement (minor violation)

The Referee shall award a penalty of Shido or Hansoku-make depending on the seriousness of the infringement. The awarding of a second or subsequent Shido automatically reflects on the opponent’s score. The previous score
corresponding to the earlier penalty is removed and the next higher score shall be recorded. The repeated Shido will be accumulated and converted to the opponent’s score. On the scoreboard repeated Shidos, would be as follows:

1 Shido = a Koka to the opponent
2 Shidos = a Yuko to the opponent
3 Shidos = a Waza-ari to the opponent
4 Shidos = Hansoku-make = disqualification

Some examples of Penalties


  1. To make an action designed to give the impression of an attack but which clearly shows that there was no intent to throw the opponent. (False attack).
  2. To intentionally disarrange his own Judogi or to untie or retie the belt or the trousers without the Referee’s permission.
  3. To insert a finger or fingers inside the opponent’s sleeve or bottom of his trousers.
  4. To put a hand, arm, foot or leg directly on the opponent’s face. The face means the area within the line bordered by the forehead, the front of the ears and the jaw-line.
  5. To go outside the contest area or intentionally force the opponent to go outside the contest area either in standing position or in Newaza. (some exceptions apply).
  6. To bend back the opponent’s finger(s) in order to break his grip.


  1. To wear a hard or metallic object (covered or not).
  2. To disregard the Referee’s instructions.
  3. To make unnecessary calls, remarks or gestures derogatory to the opponent or Referee during the contest.
  4. To make any action which may endanger or injure the opponent especially the opponent’s neck or spinal vertebrae, or may be against the spirit of Judo.


The scoreboard includes the scores, penalties and medicals, if required.















Shido Shido Shido Shido Shido Shido
Med + Med +

An Ippon is not shown on the scoreboard because scoring it ends the match. If the time runs out with neither contestant scoring an ippon, then the referee will award the win to the contestant who has the next highest score. For example a contestant with one yuko would win against an opponent who scored 4 kokas.

If the score is even at the end of the time allowed for a match, usually there will be a Golden Score (also known as “Sudden Death”) where the timer will be reset and the first contestant to score any point wins. If there is no score at the end of the Golden Score period then the referee and judges will decide the winner. They will signal their choice for winner by raising either a blue or white flag (corresponding to the blue and white sash or gi worn by the competitors). All decisions are decided by majority rules.
Categories for Competition


Age Time for Match
Junior 13 and under 2 mins
Juvenile 14 to 16 4 mins
IJF 16 to 19 4 mins
Senior 16 and over 5 mins

Note: Strangleholds and armlocks may only be used by competitors over 13 years of age in tournaments.

Other Common Tournament Terms

Shiaijo tournament hall
Shinban referee
Hajime begin
Sore made that is all
Hantei request for decision
Hiki wake draw
Yusei gachi win by superiority
Kinsa small superiority
Fusen gachi win by default
Kiken gachi win by withdrawal
Sogo gachi compound win
Kachi win
Make loss
Toketa broken (after osaekomi)
Sono mama freeze
Yoshi continue (after sono mama)
Jikan time out
Maitta I give up
Matte stop